The name of the peninsula is derived from the term Scandinavia, the cultural region of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. That cultural name is in turn derived from the name of Scania, the region at the southern extremity of the peninsula which has during periods been part of Denmark, which is the ancestral home of the Danes, and which is now part of Sweden. The derived term “Scandinavian” also refers to the North Germanic peoples who speak Scandinavian languages, considered to be a dialect continuum derived from Old Norse.These languages are Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Faroese, and Icelandic, with the latter two being closest to Old Norse.
The Scandinavian Peninsula can be said to be the largest peninsula of Europe, a continent that is itself a large peninsula of Eurasia. However, Europe contains several large peninsulas, including the Balkan, the Iberian and the Italian peninsulas. During the Ice Ages, the British Isles were another single peninsula extending from the body of the continent. Hence, the question of which is the largest peninsula in Europe is a debatable one, depending on arbitrary human definitions of where the peninsulas begin—and on which century one chooses to consider: sometimes, Scandinavia as a peninsula has not existed. During the Ice Ages, the sea level of the Atlantic Ocean dropped so much that the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Bothnia, and the Gulf of Finland disappeared, and the countries now surrounding them, including Germany, Poland, the other Baltic countries and Scandinavia, were directly joined by land.
Arguably the largest peninsula in Europe, the Scandinavian Peninsula is approximately 1,850 kilometers (1,150 mi) long with a width varying approximately from 370 to 805 kilometers (230 to 500 miles). The Scandinavian mountain range generally defines the border between Norway and Sweden. The peninsula is bordered by several bodies of water including:
- the Baltic Sea (including the Gulf of Bothnia) to the east, with the autonomous Åland islands between Sweden and Finland, and Gotland.
- the North Sea (including the Kattegat and Skagerrak) to the west and southwest
- the Norwegian Sea to the west
- the Barents Sea to the north
Its highest elevation was Glittertinden in Norway at 2,470 m (8,104 ft) above sea level, but since the glacier at its summit partially melted, the highest elevation is at 2,469 m (8,101 ft) at Galdhøpiggen, also in Norway. These mountains also have the largest glacier on the mainland of Europe, Jostedalsbreen.
The climate across Scandinavia varies from tundra (Köppen: ET) and subarctic (Dfc) in the north, with cool marine west coast climate (Cfc) in northwestern coastal areas reaching just north of Lofoten, to humid continental (Dfb) in the central portion, and marine west coast (Cfb) in the south and southwest. The region is rich in timber, iron and copper with the best farmland in southern Sweden. Large petroleum and natural-gas deposits have been found off Norway’s coast in the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
Much of the population of the Scandinavian Peninsula is naturally concentrated in its southern part, which is also its agricultural region. The largest cities of the peninsula are Stockholm, Sweden, Oslo, Norway, Gothenburg, Sweden, Malmö, Sweden and Bergen, Norway, in that order.
The Scandinavian Peninsula occupies part of the Baltic Shield, a stable and large crust segment formed of very old, crystalline metamorphic rocks. Most of the soil covering this substrate was scraped by glaciers during the Ice Ages of antiquity, especially in northern Scandinavia, where the Baltic Shield is closest to the surface of the land. As a consequence of this scouring, the elevation of the land, and the cool-to-cold climate, a relatively small percentage of its land is arable.
The glaciation during the Ice Ages also deepened many of the river valleys, which were invaded by the sea when the ice melted, creating the noteworthy fjords of Norway. In the southern part of the peninsula, the glaciers deposited vast numbers of terminal moraines, configuring a very chaotic landscape. These terminal moraines covered all of what is now Denmark.
Although the Baltic Shield is mostly geologically stable and hence resistant to the influences of other neighboring tectonic formations, the weight of nearly four kilometers of ice during the Ice Ages caused all of the Scandinavian terrain to sink. When the ice sheet disappeared, the shield rose again, a tendency that continues to this day at a rate of about one meter per century. Conversely, the southern part has tended to sink to compensate, causing flooding of the Low Countries and Denmark.
The crystalline substrate of the land and absence of soil in many places have exposed mineral deposits of metal ores, such as those of iron, copper, nickel, zinc, silver, and gold. The very most valuable of these have been the deposits of iron ore in northwestern Sweden. In the 19th century these deposits prompted the building of a railroad from northwestern Sweden to the Norwegian seaport of Narvik so that the iron ore could be exported by ship to places like southern Sweden, Germany, Great Britain, and Belgium for smelting into iron and steel. This railroad is in a region of Norway and Sweden that otherwise do not have any railroads because of the very rugged terrain, mountains, and fjords of that part of Scandinavia.
The first recorded human presence in the southern area of the peninsula and Denmark dates from 12,000 years ago. As the ice sheets from the glaciation retreated, the climate allowed a tundra biome that attracted reindeer hunters. The climate warmed up gradually, favoring the growth of evergreen trees first, and then deciduous forest which brought animals like aurochs. Groups of hunter-fisher-gatherers started to inhabit the area from the Mesolithic (8200 BC), up to the advent of agriculture in the Neolithic (3200 BC).
The northern and central part of the peninsula is partially inhabited by the Sami, often referred to as “Lapps” or “Laplanders”. In the earliest recorded periods they occupied the arctic and subarctic regions as well as the central part of the peninsula as far south as Dalarna, Sweden. They speak the Sami language, a non-Indo-European language of the Uralic family which is related to Finnish and Estonian. The other inhabitants of the peninsula, according to ninth century records, were the Norwegians on the west coast of Norway, the Danes in what is now southern and western Sweden and southeastern Norway, the Svear in the region around Mälaren as well as a large portion of the present day eastern seacoast of Sweden and the Geats in Västergötland and Östergötland. These peoples spoke closely related dialects of an Indo-European language, Old Norse. Although political boundaries have shifted, descendants of these peoples still are the dominant populations in the peninsula in the early 21st century.
2N Helsinki – 1N Cruise – 2N Stockholm – 2N Oslo – 1N Cruise – 1N Copenhagen
Arrive at Helsinki
Arrive in Helsinki and transfer to your hotel by private vehicle. Rest of the day is free for leisure. Overnight in Helsinki.
Helsinki – City Tour
Today morning proceed for half day city tour of Helsinki. Visit the Senate Square, Uspenski Cathedral, the Parliament Building and the Olympic Stadium. You will also see the Sibelius Monument and the Temppeliaukio Rock Church.You can also spend some time at the Market Place where you can find fish products, local national crafts, unusual hats,knitted and wooden products and of course all the classic souvenirs.Rest of the day is free for leisure. Overnight stay in Helsinki. (B)
Helsinki – Stockholm (Overnight Cruise)
Today morning is free for leisure. Later Take a taxi on your own and transfer to the pier to board your overnight cruise to Stockholm. Scandinavian buffet Dinner served on board. Overnight on Silja line cruise. (Inside cabins) (B,D)
Stockholm – City Tour
Breakfast served on board while approaching Stockholm, with its 24000 islands, the Stockholm archipelago is quite unique. Disembark from Cruise and take a taxi on your own and transfer to the hotel. After check in at hotel proceed for half day city tour. Visit Old Town and the Royal Palace. The tour also includes entrance to City Hall, constructed in the National Romantic style, where each year on December 10th the Nobel price banquette takes place. In the evening, take the opportunity to visit Absolut Ice bar, here the temperature is a freezing -5 degrees all year round and everything is made of ice. Overnight stay in Stockholm. (B)
Morning is free for leisure. Later Take a taxi to the pier to take the cruise to Drottnningholm palace. Entrance to Drottningholm. Take a cruise back to the city. Overnight stay in Stockholm.(B)
Stockholm – Oslo (Train)
Today morning depart in the taxi to the Stockholm train station and take a train to Oslo (2nd class). Arrive in Oslo. On arrival check in at hotel. Overnight stay in Oslo. (B)
Oslo – City Tour
Today morning proceed for half day city tour of Oslo. Visit passing the Opera house to the Vigeland Sculpture Park, the Holmenkollen ski jump the Viking ships and on the Norwegian Folk museum. Make an entrance to Vikingship museum and enjoy the guided tour. Overnight stay in Oslo. (B)
Oslo – Copenhagen (Overnight Cruise)
Today morning is free for leisure. Later Take a taxi on your own and transfer to the pier to board your overnight cruise to Copenhagen. Scandinavian buffet Dinner served on board. Overnight on DFDS cruise. (B,D)
Breakfast served on board. Arrive in Copenhagen in the morning. Disembark from Cruise and make your way to the hotel. Check in and relax. Later proceed for half day city tour of the most important sites, including the Little Mermaid, Gifon fountain in the Langlin Park, an outside look of Amalienborg Palace (including the Royal Guard change if time allows), Christiansborg and the Parliament, an outside look of the Opera house, Nyhavn, Ströget pedestrian street and the HC Andersen statue at Radhuspladsen. Rest of the day is free for leisure. Overnight stay in Copenhagen. (B)
Copenhagen – Hometown
Check out from the hotel. Private car will transfer you to the airport from the hotel to catch your flight to your next destination/ Hometown with fond memories to cherish for a lifetime. (B)
Price / Inclusion
|PRICE FROM||EURO STANDARD|
|Adult (Sharing 2)||€ 1248|
|Child with Bed||€ 936|
|Infants 0-23 Months||€ 560|
|Single Traveller||€ 1623|
|CITY NAME||HOTEL NAME|
|HELSINKI||SOKOS PRESIDENTI OR SIMILAR|
|STOCKHOLM||QUALITY GLOBE OR SIMILAR|
|OSLO||THON EUROPA OR SIMILAR|
|COPENHAGEN||FIRST VESTERBRO OR SIMILAR|
- 7 nights in hotels, shared twin room including breakfast.
- 2 night on board overnight ferry, shared inside twin cabin, breakfast and dinner included.
- Private car airport trnsf service on day 1 and day 10 only as mentioned in the program.
- SIC (Sit in coach) Sightseeing, Helsinki, Stockholm, Oslo & Copenhagen and entrance fees of Vikingship musuem & Ice bar
- Drottningholm palace return cruise and entrance to Drottningholm
- Train from Stockholm to Oslo (2nd class)
- Airfare and taxes
- Visa & Insurance fees
- Any meals other than specified above
- Any sightseeing other than mentioned above
- Any item of personal nature like mini-bar, portage, tips, laundry, telephone calls etc.
- All entrance fees and excursions not mentioned above
- 1EURO = INR 70.
- High Season surcharge applicable
- Driver is NOT A GUIDE, he will take you to the sightseeings mentioned in the itinerary.
- The prevailing Rate of Exchange of the day of payment will be applicable.
- The passport should be valid for at least 6 months from the date of departure
- Approximate return economy class airfare Ex Mumbai INR 55,000 on Jet Airways.
- We are not holding any air seats and hotel bookings at this point of time.
- Confirmation of Hotels and other services is subject to availability.
- You can upgrade to an alternate room category, hotels and air bookings by paying an extra cost
- International hotel check in is 1400hrs and checkout would be 1200hrs.
- Early check in and late check out subject to availability.
- Itineraries are subject to change
- For Security Deposits, Credit card is required at the time of hotel check in.
- Book early to ensure best rates & services and hassle-free Visa processing
- You may extend your hotel stay or upgrade any service at an extra cost.
- Contact us to tailor-make this itinerary to suit you best
Itinerary : CAPITALS OF SCANDINAVIA 10 Days